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The Textbook of Spinal Surgery Third Edition download pdf

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of Spinal Surgery Third Edition

The Textbook of Spinal Surgery Third Edition Editors in Chief KEITH H. BRIDWELL J. Albert Key Distinguished Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Professor of Neurological Surgery Chief, Pediatric/Adult Spinal Deformity Service Director, Washington University Spine Fellowship Washington University Orthopaedics Washington University School of Medicine Saint Louis, Missouri

Foreword ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

Contributing Authors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
Preface …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Contents …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Volume I
SECTION I General Considerations …………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
۱٫ The Evolution of Spine Surgery since the Second Edition of The Textbook of Spinal Surgery ………………. 24
۲٫ Spinal Cord and Nerve Root Monitoring ………………………………………………………………………………. 40
۳٫ Bone Grafting and Spine Fusion…………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
۴٫ Medical Complications in the Adult Spinal Patient ………………………………………………………………….117
۵٫ Trunk Range of Motion and Gait Considerations in Patients with Spinal Deformity ………………………… 145
SECTION II Biomechanics ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
۶٫ General Considerations of Biomechanical Testing …………………………………………………………………. 164
۷٫ Basic Pedicle Screw and Construct Biomechanics …………………………………………………………………. 182
۸٫ Biomechanics of Three-Dimensional Scoliosis Correction ……………………………………………………….. 198
۹٫ Treatment Considerations and Biomechanics of the Lumbosacral Spine ………………………………………. 217
۱۰٫ Normal Spinal Anatomy: Normal Sagittal Plane Alignment ……………………………………………………. 232
SECTION III Anatomic Approaches…………………………………………………………………………………… 251
۱۱٫ ―Microscopic‖ Approach to the Posterior Lumbar Spine for Decompression ……………………………….. 252
۱۲٫ Minimal Access Techniques Using Tubular Retractors for Disc Herniations and Stenosis………………… 274
۱۳٫ Anterior Cervical Approaches ………………………………………………………………………………………… 289
۱۴٫ Jaw-Splitting Approaches to the Upper Cervical Spine ………………………………………………………….. 307
۱۵٫ The Modified Anterior Approach to the Cervicothoracic Junction …………………………………………….. 336
۱۶٫ Transsternal Approaches to the Spine ……………………………………………………………………………….. 355
۱۷٫ Anterior Exposure of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Down to L4……………………………………………. 379
۱۸٫ Anterior Approaches to the Distal Lumbar Spine and Sacrum………………………………………………….. 401
۱۹٫ Direct Lateral Approach to the Lumbar Spine……………………………………………………………………… 429
SECTION IV The Cervical Degenerative Spine …………………………………………………………………….. 446
۲۰٫ Cervical State of the Art ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 447
۲۱٫ Evaluation of Axial Neck Pain. Who is a Surgical Candidate and Who Isn‘t: How to Manage the Nonoperative Treatment, How to Work Up the Pathology …………………………………………………………… 449
۱۸
۲۲٫ Cervical Radiculopathy: Clinical Evaluation and Nonoperative Treatment ………………………………….. 478
۲۳٫ Cervical Spondylosis and Radiculopathy …………………………………………………………………………… 496
۲۴٫ Cervical Myelopathy …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 515
Occipitocervical and Atlantoaxial Methods of Fusion: C1-2 Fixation, Harms Screw, Magerl Screw, Wiring 541
۲۶٫ Anterior Decompression, Instrumentation, Fusion Techniques: Corpectomy, Strut Grafting……………… 563
۲۷٫ Anterior Decompression, Instrumentation, Fusion Techniques: Discectomy, Foraminotomy, Disc Space Carpentry ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 607
۲۸٫ Anterior Cervical Plating ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 642
۲۹٫ Indications and Techniques for Transoral and Foramen Magnum Decompression …………………………. 663
۳۰٫ Subaxial Posterior Decompression and Fusion Techniques……………………………………………………… 690
۳۱٫ Subaxial Posterior Foraminotomy……………………………………………………………………………………. 706
۳۲٫ Subaxial Posterior Laminoplasty and Laminectomy ……………………………………………………………… 719
۳۳٫ Subaxial Posterior Lateral Mass Fixation…………………………………………………………………………… 733
۳۴٫ Subaxial Cervical Pedicle Screw Fixation ………………………………………………………………………….. 752
۳۵٫ Revision Cervical Spine Surgery …………………………………………………………………………………….. 787
۳۶٫ Cervical Disc Arthroplasty…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 804
SECTION V The Thoracic and Lumbar Degenerative Spine ……………………………………………………… 821
۳۷٫ Thoracic and Lumbar Degenerative Disorders: State of the Art………………………………………………… 822
۳۸٫ Evaluation of Thoracic and Lumbar Axial Back Pain ……………………………………………………………. 825
۳۹٫ Evaluation of Thoracic and Lumbar Radicular Pathology. Who Is a Surgical Candidate and Who Isn‘t .. 847
۴۰٫ Use of Discography to Evaluate Lumbar Back Pain with an Eye Toward Surgical Treatment……………. 870
۴۱٫ Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation……………………………………………………………………. 900
۴۲٫ Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis ……………………………………………………………………. 917
۴۳٫ Revision Laminectomy: Indications and Techniques …………………………………………………………….. 944
۴۴٫ Strategies and Techniques for Dural Repair………………………………………………………………………… 966
۴۵٫ When to Consider ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, PSF, or Motion-Preserving Techniques ………………………………. 980
۴۶٫ Motion-Preservation Techniques (Other Than Disc Arthroplasty)……………………………………………… 999
۴۷٫ Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion/Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion …………………………….1016
۴۸٫ Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Techniques ……………………………………………………………………1041
۴۹٫ Minimally Invasive Posterior Surgery for the Lumbar Spine …………………………………………………..1060
۵۰٫۱٫ Total Disc Replacement: Concepts/Design Strategy/Indications/Contraindications/Complications …..1088
۵۰٫۲٫ Total Disc Replacement—Maverick ……………………………………………………………………………… 1105
۵۰٫۳٫ Lumbar Total Disc Replacement: CHARITE Artificial Disc ………………………………………………… 1128
۵۰٫۴٫ Total Disc Replacement: ProDisc …………………………………………………………………………………. 1148
۵۱٫ Revision Lumbar Spine Surgery …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1172
۵۲٫ Complications of Lumbosacral Spine Surgery ……………………………………………………………………. 1191
۵۳٫ The Future: Disc Regeneration and Other Technologies…………………………………………………………1215
۵۴٫ Posterior Dynamic Stabilization ……………………………………………………………………………………..1244
۵۵٫ Thoracic Discectomy …………………………………………………………………………………………………..1255
۱۹
۵۶٫ Thoracic Stenosis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1276
SECTION VI Spondylolisthesis ………………………………………………………………………………………..1290
۵۷٫ Spondylolisthesis: Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………1291
۵۸٫ Wiltse and Marchetti/Bartolozzi Classifications of Spondylolisthesis—Guidelines for Treatment………1298
۵۹٫ Sacro-Pelvic Morphology, Spino-Pelvic Alignment, and the Spinal Deformity Study Group Classification ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1315
۶۰٫ The Natural History of Spondylolisthesis…………………………………………………………………………..1336
۶۱٫ Pars Repair ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1344
۶۲٫۱٫ Low-Grade Spondylolisthesis in Children and Adolescents ………………………………………………….1360
۶۲٫۲٫ Low-Grade Spondylolisthesis in Adults: Surgical Management……………………………………………..1369
۶۳٫ Adult Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Without Lysis …………………………………………………………….1401
۶۴٫ High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: Fusion In Situ …………………………………………………………………….1432
۶۵٫ High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: Partial Reduction…………………………………………………………………1444
۶۶٫ High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: Posterior Decompression and Spanning/Dowel Fibula …………………..1482
۶۷٫ High Dysplastic Spondylolisthesis: Anatomic Reduction. The Harms/Shufflebarger Technique ………..1505
۶۸٫ Reduction of High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: The Edwards Technique ……………………………………….1518
۶۹٫ The L5 Vertebrectomy Approach for the Treatment of Spondyloptosis with Reduction of L4 onto S1 …1573
۷۰٫ Complications of Spondylolysis/Spondylolisthesis Surgery…………………………………………………….1595
Volume II
SECTION VII Idiopathic Scoliosis…………………………………………………………………………………….1615
۷۱٫ Introduction to Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis …………………………………………………………………..1616
۷۲٫ Natural History Including Measures of Maturity………………………………………………………………….1619
۷۳٫ Clinical Assessment and Parent–Patient Expectations……………………………………………………………1648
۷۴٫ Spinal Deformity Outcomes Measurement…………………………………………………………………………1660
۷۵٫ Radiographic Classification Scheme: Lenke Classification …………………………………………………….1680
۷۶٫ Fusionless Surgery and Growing Rod Techniques for Infantile and Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis ………1703
۷۷٫ Stapling Techniques …………………………………………………………………………………………………….1732
۷۸٫ Open and Thoracoscopic Anterior Thoracic Surgery …………………………………………………………….1754
۷۹٫ Thoracoplasty ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………1778
۸۰٫ Evolution of Instrumentation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis …………………………………………….1791
۸۱٫ Short Segment ―Bone-on-Bone‖ Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis ……………………………….1810
۸۲٫ Posterior Spinal Deformity Correction Techniques……………………………………………………………….1834
۸۳٫ Anterior Lumbar and Thoracolumbar Correction and Fusion for AIS…………………………………………1863
۸۴٫ Treatment of Thoracic Scoliosis ……………………………………………………………………………………..1897
۸۵٫ Selective Thoracic Fusion……………………………………………………………………………………………..1932
۸۶٫ Complications Associated with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery…………………………………….1958
۲۰
SECTION VIII Adult Spinal Deformity ………………………………………………………………………………1998
۸۷٫ Adult Spinal Deformity—Introduction/State of the Art ………………………………………………………….1999
۸۸٫ Adult Spinal Deformity Classification ………………………………………………………………………………2001
۸۹٫ De Novo Scoliosis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………2016
۹۰٫ Sagittal Imbalance ………………………………………………………………………………………………………2038
۹۱٫ Fixed Coronal Imbalance of the Spine: Clinical Significance and Operative Management……………….2058
۹۲٫ Spinal Deformity in the Older Patient With Kyphosis……………………………………………………………2082
۹۳٫ Revision Surgeries for Adult Spinal Deformity……………………………………………………………………2097
۹۴٫ Smith-Petersen Osteotomy of the Spine……………………………………………………………………………. 2115
۹۵٫ Pedicle Subtraction Procedures for Complex Spinal Deformity ……………………………………………….2127
۹۶٫ Vertebral Column Resection for Complex Spinal Deformity: Posterior Approach………………………….2147
۹۷٫ Vertebral Column Resection for Complex Spinal Deformity: Anterior and Posterior Approach …………2176
۹۸٫ Minimally Invasive Deformity Surgery: Future Directions ……………………………………………………..2190
۹۹٫ Fusion to the Sacrum and Fixation Techniques of the Sacropelvic Junction ………………………………… 2211
۱۰۰٫ Structural Grafting for Adult Spinal Deformity ………………………………………………………………….2241
SECTION IX Dysplastic and Congenital Deformities ……………………………………………………………..2258
۱۰۱٫ Introduction/State of the Art in the Care of Dysplastic and Congenital Spine Deformities………………2259
۱۰۲٫ Dysplastic Scoliosis: Neurofibromatosis Spinal Pathology ……………………………………………………2269
۱۰۳٫ Spinal Deformities in Marfan Syndrome ………………………………………………………………………….2301
۱۰۴٫ Spinal Deformity in Skeletal Dysplasia Conditions …………………………………………………………….2316
۱۰۵٫ The Spine in Osteogenesis Imperfecta …………………………………………………………………………….2346
۱۰۶٫ Spinal Deformity in Familial Dysautonomia……………………………………………………………………..2362
۱۰۷٫ Congenital Scoliosis ………………………………………………………………………………………………….2383
۱۰۸٫ Hemivertebra Resection ……………………………………………………………………………………………..2430
۱۰۹٫ Congenital Intraspinal Anomalies: Spinal Dysraphism—Embryology, Pathology, and Treatment …….2454
۱۱۰٫ Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome…………………………………………………………………………………..2508
۱۱۱٫ Congenital Anomalies of the Cervical Spine in Children: Management of Segmental Instability and Spinal Canal Encroachment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2535
SECTION X Paralytic Deformity ………………………………………………………………………………………2586
۱۱۲٫ Introduction/State of the Art in the Care of the Paralytic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis………………….2587
۱۱۳٫ Paralytic Scoliosis and the Spastic Patient ………………………………………………………………………..2598
۱۱۴٫ Surgical Treatment of Flaccid Neuromuscular Scoliosis ……………………………………………………….2638
۱۱۵٫ Surgical Treatment of Myelomeningocele Deformities…………………………………………………………2666
۱۱۶٫ Management of Paralytic Neuromuscular Disorders with an Emphasis on Pelvic Obliquity ……………2681
۱۱۷٫ Role of Halo Traction and Halo-Femoral Traction in Paralytic/Neuromuscular Scoliosis ………………. 2711
SECTION XI Kyphosis and Postlaminectomy Deformities……………………………………………………….2740
۱۱۸٫ Introduction and Current State of the Art………………………………………………………………………….2741
۲۱
۱۱۹٫ Cervical Instability and Kyphosis (Rheumatoid, Dwarfism, Degenerative, Others) ………………………2743
۱۲۰٫ Surgical Treatment of Scheuermann‘s Kyphosis…………………………………………………………………2769
۱۲۱٫ Short-Segment Anterior Fusion of Symptomatic Scheuermann‘s Disease ………………………………….2798
۱۲۲٫ Postlaminectomy Deformities in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine……………………………………………2822
۱۲۳٫ Posttraumatic Deformity……………………………………………………………………………………………..2835
۱۲۴٫ Ankylosing Spondylitis/Thoracolumbar Deformities …………………………………………………………..2851
۱۲۵٫ Cervicothoracic Extension Osteotomy for Chin-On-Chest Deformity ………………………………………2862
۱۲۶٫ The Role of Osteotomies in the Cervical Spine ………………………………………………………………….2885
SECTION XII Trauma …………………………………………………………………………………………………..2924
۱۲۷٫ Trauma State of the Art……………………………………………………………………………………………….2925
۱۲۸٫ Classification of Cervical Spine Injury ……………………………………………………………………………2932
۱۲۹٫ Classification of Thoracic and Lumbar Fractures ……………………………………………………………….2952
۱۳۰٫ Surgical Management of Cervical Spine Fractures ……………………………………………………………..2973
۱۳۱٫ Anterior and Posterior Instrumentation Techniques Used in the Thoracic Spine for Treatment of Fractures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2997
۱۳۲٫ Surgical Treatment of Thoracolumbar and Lumbar Fractures…………………………………………………3025
۱۳۳٫ Anterior Decompression Techniques for Thoracic and Lumbar Fractures ………………………………….3053
۱۳۴٫ Minimal Access Techniques for Spine Trauma…………………………………………………………………..3077
۱۳۵٫ Management and Surgical Treatment of Fractures of the Lumbosacral Region and the Sacrum ……….3097
۱۳۶٫ Novel Approaches to Neural Repair and Regeneration After Spinal Cord Injury………………………….3123
SECTION XIII Tumor and Osteomyelitis…………………………………………………………………………….3147
۱۳۷٫ Introduction and State of the Art ……………………………………………………………………………………3148
۱۳۸٫ Benign Tumors of the Spine …………………………………………………………………………………………3150
۱۳۹٫ Primary Malignant Tumors of the Spine ………………………………………………………………………….3173
۱۴۰٫ The Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Spine Disease……………………………………………………………3200
۱۴۱٫ Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors ……………………………………………………………………………….3217
۱۴۲٫ Intradural, Extramedullary Spinal Tumors………………………………………………………………………..3260
۱۴۳٫ Spinal Vascular Malformations ……………………………………………………………………………………..3287
۱۴۴٫ Spinal Infection/Osteomyelitis …………………………………………………………………………………….. 3311
۱۴۵٫ Tumors of the Sacrum ………………………………………………………………………………………………..3324
۱۴۶٫ Adjuvant Therapy of Spinal Tumors ……………………………………………………………………………….3350
SECTION XIV Complications………………………………………………………………………………………….3363
۱۴۷٫ Introduction/State-of-the-Art ………………………………………………………………………………………..3364
۱۴۸٫ Neurological Complications …………………………………………………………………………………………3368
۱۴۹٫ Reconstruction of Complex Spinal Wounds………………………………………………………………………3381
۱۵۱٫ Postoperative Early and Late Wound/Implant Infections ………………………………………………………3423
۱۵۲٫ Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula and Pseudomeningocele …………………………………………………………..3439
۲۲
۱۵۳٫ Pseudarthrosis in Spinal Deformity Surgery ……………………………………………………………………..3452
۱۵۴٫ Legal Implications and Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………….3476
۱۵۵٫ Unresolved Postoperative Spine Pain ……………………………………………………………………………..3540
۱۵۶٫ Medical Complications Associated with Spinal Surgery……………………………………………………….3576
Index …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3597

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