NEUROLOGY IN CLINICAL MEDICINE book pdf 3rd Edition HARRISON’S

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INTRODUCTION TO NEUROLOGY
۱ Approach to the Patient with Neurologic
Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Daniel H. Lowenstein, Joseph B. Martin, Stephen L.
Hauser
۲ The Neurologic Screening Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Daniel H. Lowenstein
۳ Video Atlas of the Detailed Neurologic
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Martin A. Samuels
۴ Neuroimaging in Neurologic Disorders . . . . . . . 13
William P. Dillon
۵ Electrodiagnostic Studies of Nervous System
Disorders: EEG, Evoked Potentials,
and EMG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Michael J. Aminoff
۶ Technique of Lumbar Puncture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Elizabeth Robbins, Stephen L. Hauser
SECTION II
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF
NEUROLOGIC DISEASE
۷ Pain: Pathophysiology and Management . . . . . . . 40
James P. Rathmell, Howard L. Fields
۸ Headache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Peter J. Goadsby, Neil H. Raskin
۹ Back and Neck Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
John W. Engstrom, Richard A. Deyo
۱۰ Syncope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Roy Freeman
۱۱ Dizziness and Vertigo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Mark F. Walker, Robert B. Daroff
۱۲ Weakness and Paralysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Michael J. Aminoff
۱۳ Gait and Balance Disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Lewis Sudarsky
۱۴ Video Library of Gait Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Gail Kang, Nicholas B. Galifianakis, Michael
Geschwind
۱۵ Numbness, Tingling, and Sensory Loss . . . . . . . 117
Michael J. Aminoff, Arthur K. Asbury
۱۶ Confusion and Delirium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
S. Andrew Josephson, Bruce L. Miller
۱۷ Coma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Allan H. Ropper
۱۸ Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal
Cerebral Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
M.-Marsel Mesulam
۱۹ Video Atlas: Primary Progressive Aphasia,
Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral
Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Jennifer Ogar,
Joel Kramer, Bruce L. Miller, Gil Rabinovici,
Maria Carmela Tartaglia
۲۰ Sleep Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Charles A. Czeisler, John W. Winkelman, Gary S.
Richardson
۲۱ Disorders of Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Jonathan C. Horton
۲۲ Video Library of Neuro-Ophthalmology . . . . . 198
Shirley H. Wray
۲۳ Disorders of Smell and Taste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Richard L. Doty, Steven M. Bromley
۲۴ Disorders of Hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Anil K. Lalwani
SECTION III
DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
۲۵ Mechanisms of Neurologic Diseases . . . . . . . . . 218
Stephen L. Hauser, M. Flint Beal
۲۶ Seizures and Epilepsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Daniel H. Lowenstein
۲۷ Cerebrovascular Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Wade S. Smith, Joey D. English, S. Claiborne Johnston
CONTENTS

s
۲۸ Neurologic Critical Care, Including
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy,
and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
J. Claude Hemphill, III, Wade S. Smith,
Daryl R. Gress
۲۹ Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias . . . . 310
William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller
۳۰ Parkinson’s Disease and Other Extrapyramidal
Movement Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
C. Warren Olanow, Anthony H. V. Schapira
۳۱ Ataxic Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Roger N. Rosenberg
۳۲ Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor
Neuron Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Robert H. Brown, Jr.
۳۳ Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System . . . . 380
Phillip A. Low, John W. Engstrom
۳۴ Trigeminal Neuralgia, Bell’s Palsy, and
Other Cranial Nerve Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
M. Flint Beal, Stephen L. Hauser
۳۵ Diseases of the Spinal Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Stephen L. Hauser, Allan H. Ropper
۳۶ Concussion and Other Head Injuries . . . . . . . . 415
Allan H. Ropper
۳۷ Primary and Metastatic Tumors of the Nervous
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Lisa M. DeAngelis, Patrick Y. Wen
۳۸ Neurologic Disorders of the Pituitary and
Hypothalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Shlomo Melmed, J. Larry Jameson
۳۹ Multiple Sclerosis and Other Demyelinating
Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Stephen L. Hauser, Douglas S. Goodin
۴۰ Meningitis, Encephalitis, Brain Abscess,
and Empyema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Karen L. Roos, Kenneth L. Tyler
۴۱ Chronic and Recurrent Meningitis . . . . . . . . . . 527
Walter J. Koroshetz, Morton N. Swartz
۴۲ HIV Neurology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Anthony S. Fauci, H. Clifford Lane
۴۳ Prion Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
Stanley B. Prusiner, Bruce L. Miller
۴۴ Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes. . . . . . . . 558
Josep Dalmau, Myrna R. Rosenfeld
۴۵ Peripheral Neuropathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
Anthony A. Amato, Richard J. Barohn
۴۶ Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Other
Immune-Mediated Neuropathies . . . . . . . . . . . 599
Stephen L. Hauser, Anthony A. Amato
۴۷ Myasthenia Gravis and Other Diseases of
the Neuromuscular Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
Daniel B. Drachman
۴۸ Muscular Dystrophies and Other
Muscle Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618
Anthony A. Amato, Robert H. Brown, Jr.
۴۹ Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis, and Inclusion
Body Myositis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
Marinos C. Dalakas
۵۰ Special Issues in Inpatient Neurologic
Consultation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660
S. Andrew Josephson, Martin A. Samuels
۵۱ Atlas of Neuroimaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668
Andre Furtado, William P. Dillon
SECTION IV
CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME
۵۲ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704
Gijs Bleijenberg, Jos W. M. van der Meer
SECTION V
PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
۵۳ Biology of Psychiatric Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
Robert O. Messing, John H. Rubenstein, Eric J. Nestler
۵۴ Mental Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720
Victor I. Reus
۵۵ Neuropsychiatric Illnesses in War Veterans . . . . 742
Charles W. Hoge
SECTION VI
ALCOHOLISM AND DRUG DEPENDENCY
۵۶ Alcohol and Alcoholism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752
Marc A. Schuckit
۵۷ Opioid Drug Abuse and Dependence . . . . . . . . 761
Thomas R. Kosten
vi
Contents
۵۸ Cocaine and Other Commonly
Abused Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767
Nancy K. Mello, Jack H. Mendelson
Appendix
Laboratory Values of Clinical Importance . . . . . . . 775
Alexander Kratz, Michael A. Pesce, Robert C. Basner,
Andrew J. Einstein
vii
Review and Self-Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801
Charles Wiener,Cynthia D. Brown,
Anna R. Hemnes
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EYE MOVEMENTS AND ALIGNMENT
Eye movements are tested by asking the patient, with
both eyes open, to pursue a small target such as a penlight
into the cardinal fields of gaze. Normal ocular versions
are smooth, symmetric, full, and maintained in all directions without nystagmus. Saccades, or quick refixation
eye movements, are assessed by having the patient look
back and forth between two stationary targets. The eyes
should move rapidly and accurately in a single jump to
their target. Ocular alignment can be judged by holding
a penlight directly in front of the patient at about 1 m.
If the eyes are straight, the corneal light reflex will be
centered in the middle of each pupil. To test eye alignment more precisely, the cover test is useful. The patient
is instructed to gaze upon a small fixation target in the
distance. One eye is covered suddenly while the second
eye is observed. If the second eye shifts to fixate on the
target, it was misaligned. If it does not move, the first eye
is uncovered and the test is repeated on the second eye.
If neither eye moves, the eyes are aligned orthotropically.
If the eyes are orthotropic in primary gaze but the patient
complains of diplopia, the cover test should be performed
with the head tilted or turned in whatever direction elicits diplopia. With practice the examiner can detect an
ocular deviation (heterotropia) as small as 1–۲° with the
cover test. Deviations can be measured by placing prisms
in front of the misaligned eye to determine the power
required to neutralize the fixation shift evoked by covering the other eye.

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